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I Did Not Want to Take Insulin

I had always been overweight. I know some people obsess over their appearances, but I was not one of them. I knew I was overweight, but I never felt fat. That changed when my doctor told me that I was going to have to start taking insulin shots if I did not do something about my extra weight. I don’t like needles, so that was all I needed to hear to change how I was. I went online to get some tips on how to lose weight, which is how I found http://howtogetridofbellyfatfast.org/how-to-get-rid-of-belly-fat-fast.

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Effective Tips To Determine The Drugs

http://breakthroughs.cityofhope.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/503258063-e1418861705246-250x250.jpgIn the comparison to the urinalysis drug test, PCP, cocaine, methamphetamine and the opiates have proven the hair analysis long very effective than the urine testing in the identifying the low level drug use over the extended period of the time since this is normally out of a bloodstream within 3 to 7 days a detection of the marijuana is presently less sensitive rather than other drugs on identifying the marijuana users, but this is considered approximately equal to the urinanalysis on identifying the marijuana user. A detection period for the hair has limited by a length of a hair sample and also it is approximately ninety days for the standard screen. After the substance has ingested, whether orally, snorted, smoked, or injected, themetabolites have produced as a drug is processed by a human body.

As the drug and also the metabolites are circulating in a blood stream and they enter as well as nourish a hair follicle and also then inserted to a hair strand. The standard screen with the GC or MS confirmation needs forty plus milligrams of the hair or approximately 50 to 70 strands which is up to 3.9 cm in the length. Click here to know more details. A thickness and also the pigment color of the various types of the head hair are a basis of the variation. The body hair will be drug tested as the hair from a head. A growth rate for the body is considerably slower than a hair from the head. Most of the body hair has replaced in one year. This is very challenging to represent a time period of the standard screen with the body hair so the substances can be detected in the body hair for up to one year after a substance left a blood stream.

Take The Importance Of Health Supplement To Reduce Health Risk

Health is one of the important factors for the people, in order to maintain their health condition people are like to use the health supplements. There are varied options available to promote the health condition, but using the health supplement are one of the most effective choices to promote the health condition because the health supplement have essential nutrients as well as the fatty acids this helps to promote your health. Using the health supplement is highly beneficial and it is the suitable supplements for all age people. Normally the health supplement involves varying activity; slightly it improves the complete health condition.

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Get the elegant and radiant beauty with Ederra Beauty services

People always look to keep themselves look beautiful and also youthful, as it not only helps to become the centre of attraction, but can also help the people to attain the much needed positive outlook in their lives, through such process. While there are beauty salons that can provide services for their clients, there are only few companies such as Ederra Beauty, which keep their clients feel special with their different types of services, starting from their punctuality and the way they end up the session by making their clients feel even beautiful after their services.

The most specialized service that they provide for their customers is the eyelash extensions which they can provide for third customers. There are several sub-categories in this, which can not only depend on the affordability of the service but can also depend on the type of eyelash that a person has, and the ones that would suit for their looks. These can also vary depending on the duration by which the customers would like to have their results to be visible on them. Apart from this exclusive service that they can provide for their customers, they can also find other services that can be available in them such as sugaring or hair removal technique, which they can provide for all parts of the body or even for separate parts of the body, including some unmentionable regions in a person. Other services include brow and lash tinting, airbrush tanning and even botox treatment for their clients. While they can provide various such services for their customers, they also ensure that they provide the best services for their clients, while also ensuring their customer’s safety by treating them with the best instruments for every procedure. They also ensure that they give prioritization to punctuality, even when their customer’s arrive late, thereby rectifying any corrections at a later point of time.

The most outstanding pills to cure premature ejaculation problems soon

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Once you have taken the Climinax capsule before you begin to take part in the foreplay, you can get the most exceptional support to be active in the sexual intercourse without any doubt about premature ejaculation. Many users of this capsule nowadays suggest this to men who have the same sexual problems. As compared to different causes of premature ejaculation, the foremost causes are depression, male’s psychological state, and stress. If sufferers of premature ejaculation have begun to use Climinax pills, they get the natural support to extend their time to have the sexual climax. They can keep away from both disappointment and frustration while having foreplay and sexual fun with the partner. You can listen to further details about this number one PE pill to get confidence enough to use it in the upcoming days.

Make tasty juices for kids

Obviously kids will not prefer taking juices until they are tasty. But there is no other option for the parents that they must feed their kids with natural juices in order to show better concern on their health. The most important aspect to be noted is the kids will not prefer taking juices until they are tastier. Hence it is the responsibility of every parent to make the best tasty juices for their kids. Juices can be made in many different ways. But while making juices for kids, it is more important to extract the seeds. This is because kids will not like taking juices along with seeds. At times making juices in non quality juice makers will create a great problem. For example, their motor will not be effective enough to grind the seeds. Hence kids will not prefer taking such juices which contains more seeds.

To make tasty juices for kids, it is more important to shop a best juicer which can extract seedless juices. Even though there are many juice makers in the market, only few among them like sound to be good. The rest were rejected for their quality. Hence while shopping a juice maker from the market; you are supposed to be more careful. It is better to concern the quality rather than its price. Even though some juice makers sound costly, they will be renowned for their quality. It is better to shop makers to provide the best healthy drink for kids. hamilton beach juicer is one of the best juice makers in the market which can be shopped at most reliable price. These juicers are not only affordable but they are made out of best quality materials. Hence the chances of getting repair will be less when compared to other leading juicers in the market.

Information about Vitiligo treatments

Now days, folks are getting more fear about the diseases because some diseases are not having prefect medical remedies likewise Vitiligo is the one type of skin disease which affects any people any time. Vitiligo is the famous skin disease which affects the melanocytes pigment cells in the skin are destroyed in certain areas in the human body. It spreads to remaining part of the body also. The vitiligo affected persons physical appearance is like white patches of the skin in any part of the body. This disease easily spread to the other place of the human body, how it happens and affects the skin. The body immune system will be affected by various reasons so it will destroy the cells gradually. Age groups between 20 to 40 are highly affected for this disease. The thyroid gland dysfunction may also cause this problem. vitiligo natural treatments are now control the problem but many of them are not choosing the right treatments for this vitiligo disease.

Still there are many medical centers are taking the medical studies for what reason s behind form this vitiligo disease. It affects the major parts like eyes, retina, inner eyeball, mouth, lower jaw, back side etc. There are plenty of medical experts are doing research for this problem one of the common reason for this problem is autoimmune disease. The vitiligo treatments like UVB light therapy, Ayurvedic treatments, surgery, etc are some common treatments for this disease. Initial stage of the vitiligo is easily curable but severe condition f vitiligo is one of the challenge tasks for the medical advisor. Naturally the skin condition is varying from one person to another. Based on the skin tone, the treatment will be given to the patients. Lotion, oil- cream, UVB laser treatment etc are available for this disease.

Fast spreading skin disease

Many skin diseases are spreading diseases which may spread from one person to other when germs are spread like while playing in dirt water or other climatic changes also cause some small diseases so we should apply proper lotions to the body parts that are exposed out also we should take apt remedies according to the diseases that spread because there are many seasonal diseases.

Some diseases may not spread from one person to others but it may spread from one place to another allover the body and the person must know about the type of skin they have to avoid the future problems that may come to them in bigger size. Vitiligo is common skin disease which can be cured soon by proper treatment from the professional or experienced doctors. It is kind of gene spreading disease like spreading form the parents to the children but it is not that all the parent’s disease is passed to the children it is in very rare cases but still if the treatments for vitiligo is taken properly then the parents can also overcome it so soon and the treatment may be like using Ultraviolet rays or using ultraviolet bands and next one is the prescription from the skin specialists which may cost less when compared to the treatment of the ultraviolet bands but the worst part is they cannot be easily cured or cured soon by these treatment but it may avoid spreading as these are in-borne diseases which spread because of gene it is quite tough to control and spending money in the name of these treatment is waste. Do not get cheated when someone assures you that this particular skin disease can be completely cured it mean s that they are trying to snatch money from us rather than treating us.

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The classic model of the Bathmate Hercules gives lots of benefits to mature individuals who feel affection for increasing the size of their penis without negative side effects. The overall design of this penis enlargement device gives confidence to men who get ready to make simple efforts to have an enlarged penis forever. The most outstanding pumping power of this affordable device gives the best worth to users’ time and money. Users of this device do not experience any pressure and pain since the best design of this device ensures the greatest comfort to them.

The Beautiful Culture of Water

1361269555956In our culture the importance of water in attaining beauty is largely ignored. Yet It’s not only the basic biochemical that feeds the microscopic organelles of our cells. Water is the most important supplier of a constant and reliable rejuvenator. We’re captivated by the aesthetic values offered in modern-day beauty biochemical developers. Yet water is the underlying contributor to preserving firmness in connective tissue. Hydration keeps the integrity of healthy skin glowing in a way that no makeup or product can mimic.

Global markets have been flooded with techniques and claims that promise alluring appearances. Yet the most difficult choice is finding a product or service that delivers a safe, budget friendly promise kept. Many boutique skin salons offer, as part of a system, products that tighten skin. Part of their success lie in the absence of invasive therapies. Good hydration of the underlying connecting tissues is the major advocate of the appearance of firm and tight skin.

For many of us it may be the challenge of maintaining a healthy balance to over active sebaceous glands or oily skin. Take in consideration that good hydration to oil producing cells is necessary to balanced skin. The lack of proper H2O deliverance to oil producing cells will cause an over production. Still another treatment for skin imbalance is chemical peelers; this method debrides the problematic top layer of skin to reveal new dermis. There are noninvasive products that offer remedies that bind hydration to the skin by way of a series of dermal injections. And though the many paths to maintaining a youthful appearance is numerous, the basic promises to healthful skin with water remain inarguable

Acne, wrinkling, dryness, oiliness, dull and sagging skin are all substrates of the underlying absence of an optimum intake of water. Needful hydration allows the cells of our bodies to do the work they are designed for. Hydrating cells allows for rapid flushing and elimination of buildup in toxins, which encourage dull skin pigmentation and dark circles. Wrinkling and sagging skin becomes smooth when the complex network of vessels that feed muscle and collagen are hydrated. Water is the most important beauty biochemical that is readily available to our bodies.

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Say No to Soda, Yes to Healthy Drinks : Learn five reasons why soda is bad for you and five healthy drinks that are better for quenching your thirst.

Doctors have discovered a ton of health risks connected with drinking soda pop. Worse, you’re robbing yourself of a healthy drink alternative brimming with needed vitamins and minerals every time you chug down a soft drink.

“If you’re choosing a soda, chances are you aren’t choosing a healthy beverage,” says Keri M. Gans, a nutrition consultant in New York City and a spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association. There are a number of healthy drink choices you can make instead.

Why Say No to Soda?

  • Soda is truly worthless to your body. “In my opinion, there’s really one major reason to not drink soda,” Gans says. “It has absolutely no nutritional value. Soda is filled with sugar and calories and nothing else.” Even diet sodas — low to no calories and sugar — don’t have any redeeming virtues, nutritionally. Healthy drinks, on the other hand, have vitamins and minerals the body can use. Even plain water can rehydrate your body without adding extra calories to your diet.
  • Sugary sodas contribute to obesity and diabetes. Soda is loaded with high-fructose corn syrup, a sweetener that has been linked to obesity. Soda consumption also has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, both due to its sugar content and its effects on the body’s hormones. And diet soda? It may not be any better. At least one study has linked artificial sweeteners, such as those used in diet sodas, to increased appetite, greater difficulty losing weight, and a harder time maintaining weight loss.
  • Soda damages your teeth. The sugar in soda coats your teeth, combining with bacteria in your mouth to form acid. Both regular and diet soda also contain carbolic acid through carbonation. These acids work to weaken tooth enamel, causing cavities and tooth decay.
  • Drinking soda can weaken your bones. Most sodas contain phosphorous and caffeine, agents that are believed to contribute to osteoporosis. Experts also worry that people consume soda in place of milk or other healthy drinks, depriving the bones of calcium.
  • Soda can harm your major organs. Research has demonstrated that increased soft drink consumption may be linked to chronic kidney disease, development of metabolic syndrome (a group of symptoms that add up to increased heart risk), and fatty liver, a chronic liver disease.

Healthy Drink Alternatives

Luckily, there are limitless options when choosing a healthy drink over a soda pop. Some soda alternatives include:

  • Water. It is the ultimate healthy drink. “It’s free in every sense of the word,” Gans says. “It has no calories and it comes straight from your tap.”
  • Fruit juice. Gans urges you not to drink straight fruit juice, which contains a lot of sugar. “Drink some seltzer with a splash of juice for a little flavoring,” she says. “Rather than drinking juice, eat a piece of whole fruit. You’re also getting the fiber in the fruit.”
  • Milk. This is another essential healthy drink, particularly for kids. “An 8-ounce glass of nonfat milk has 80 calories and nine essential nutrients,” Gans says. “You get a lot of bang for your buck.”
  • Tea. Whatever teas you prefer — green, black, herbal — they all have been shown to contain high levels of antioxidants, which are believed to protect the body from damage.
  • Powdered drink mixes. They contain no tooth-rotting carbonation, and come in sugar-free varieties. They give your sweet tooth a fix without harming your overall nutrition.

And remember that you can always cut up some fresh fruit and pop a little into a tall glass of water for an extra flavor kick. Choosing healthy drinks over soda: Give it a try. Your body will thank you.

Diet and Diabetes : Making healthy food choices can lower your risk of developing diabetes or its complications. Learn about the diet and diabetes connection.

For most people who don’t feel well, a visit to the doctor can diagnose and fix the problem. Simple, right?

But some diseases can be silent predators, offering few or no warning signs to alert you early on that help is needed. One such disease is diabetes.

Not only does diabetes affect almost 24 million people in the United States, but 25 percent don’t even know they have it.

What Is Diabetes?

As food is digested, it is broken down into glucose (also known as sugar), which provides energy and powers our cells. Insulin, a hormone made in the pancreas, moves the glucose from the blood to the cells. However, if there is not enough insulin or the insulin isn’t working properly, then the glucose stays in the blood and causes blood sugar levels to rise.

There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 results from the pancreas no longer being able to make insulin and is usually found in children, teens, and young adults. Gestational diabetes can occur near the end of a woman’s pregnancy and usually disappears after the baby’s birth.

The most common form of diabetes is type 2. Risk factors include being overweight; not getting enough physical activity; having a parent or sibling with diabetes; being African-American, Asian-American, Latino, Native American, or Pacific Islander; being a woman who had gestational diabetes or gave birth to a baby who weighed more than nine pounds; having high blood pressure, having low HDL (good cholesterol) or high triglycerides; and having pre-diabetes.

Diabetes: Why Is It Dangerous?

“When poorly controlled diabetes causes blood glucose levels that are too high or too low, you may not feel well,” explains Claudia L. Morrison, RD, outpatient diabetes program coordinator at Washington Hospital Center in Washington, D.C. “Diabetes that is poorly controlled over time can lead to complications that affect the body from head to toe.” Issues can occur with everything from one’s eyes, kidneys, and nerves to reproductive organs, blood vessels, and gums. But the most serious problems are heart disease and risk of stroke.

Diabetes: What Role Does Diet Play?

“Food can either promote diabetes or help prevent it, depending on how it affects the body’s ability to process glucose,” says Elizabeth Ricanati, MD, medical director of the Cleveland Clinic’s Lifestyle 180 Program in Cleveland. “People should avoid foods that increase blood sugar and those that raise cholesterol, such as processed foods, foods high in saturated fats or with trans fats, and foods with added sugars and syrups.”

Processed foods as well as items high in fat or sugar not only can disrupt the balance between glucose and insulin, resulting in inflammation, but can also contribute to risk factors such as being overweight.

Carbs, too, need to be watched. While they are necessary to fuel the body, some carbohydrates raise blood glucose levels more than others. “The glycemic index (GI) measures how a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood glucose,” says Morrison. “Foods are ranked based on how they compare to a reference food such as white bread. Dry beans and legumes, all non-starchy vegetables, and many whole-grain breads and cereals all have a low GI.”

Diabetes: What Is a Healthy Diet?

A healthy diet for diabetes is virtually the same as a healthy diet for anyone. Eat reasonably sized portions to avoid gaining weight, and include fruits and vegetables (limit juice to no more than eight ounces a day); whole grains rather than processed ones; fish and lean cuts of meat; beans and legumes; and liquid oils. Limit saturated fats and high-calorie snacks and desserts like chips, cake, and ice cream, and stay away from trans fats altogether.

Thirty minutes of exercise most days of the week and losing 5 to 10 percent of body weight, if a person is overweight, are also crucial in reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Finally, anyone experiencing frequent urination, extreme thirst or hunger, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, blurry vision, or frequent infections should see a doctor for a blood test to check for diabetes. With careful attention and healthy lifestyle choices, diabetes can be kept under control.

Physical Activity And Play In Children Who Are Obese

Physical activity and health-related fitness in childhood

Health-related physical fitness (HRPF) includes: cardiovascular endurance; muscle strength and endurance; flexibility; coordination; body composition and metabolic components(3). The relationship between physical activity (PA) level and physical fitness in children does not appear to be as clear as that observed in adults(4). Some studies have indicated a weak relationship between physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance in children, with activity accounting for only 21% of the variation in physical fitness(5). Other studies have observed stronger associations between PA and fitness in adolescents(6, 7). The type of PA is important for cardiorespiratory health whereby moderate and vigorous PA leads to greater gains (8-11). Research suggests that two or more weekly sessions of moderate PA or one weekly session of vigorous PA are needed to produce increases in cardiorespiratory fitness(12). Similarly, PA can positively influence cardiometabolic factors such as diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and lipoprotein levels (13-15).

Studies have described a positive relationship between physical activity and muscular health in children, including muscle strength and muscle flexibility (7, 16-18).

Similarly both activity and lean body mass have been shown to be strong predictors of bone mass accrual in children(19). Some authors posit that the relatively lower bone mass associated with childhood obesity may represent a reduced physical activity level within this population(20). Indeed it has been observed that bone strength is decreased in sedentary children who are overweight(21) and reductions in bone strength have been observed to increase the risk of fractures in this group (22).

Standing balance is an important component of physical fitness and everyday function and children engaging in low levels of play and physical activity are reported to have reduced balance capacity (23),which is an important risk factor for injury and fracture incidence (24, 25). Balance dysfunction and impaired motor skill may influence children’s interest in physical activity if they associate exercise with negative experiences such as falling or injury. From the literature it appears that PA can positively influence motor development and motor skill when performed at least three times per week (18, 26, 27),

Finally, there is evidence that PA has a positive impact on mental health in childhood (levels of depression, self-worth, anger expression and perceived physical appearance) (28, 29) particularly when performed at a vigorous intensity (30, 31).

Physical activity and adiposity in childhood

Physical activity (PA) contributes to daily energy expenditure and is important for the maintenance of a healthy body weight throughout growth. To date, studies investigating the association between PA and obesity vary according to the methods used to measure activity and obesity. For example, in a large population-based study Ekelund et al. reported that children who accumulated under one hour of moderate daily PA (measured by activity monitor), were significantly more overweight than those who accumulated more than two hours of PA daily(1). No association was observed between PA and body mass index (BMI) as a measure of body fatness. In a cross-sectional study an association between PA measured by questionnaire and BMI in 12-year old girls was observed (p<0.01)(32). In addition, these authors described a strong negative association between structured PA and waist circumference as a measure of abdominal fat (girls p<0.0001, boys p<0.01). In addition, an inverse relationship between percentage body fat and physical activity level has been reported by Ball et al. and Rush et al. (33, 34). Deforche et al. assessed the physical fitness and PA in 3,214 obese and non-obese schoolchildren who were lean or obese where obesity was based on BMI and the sum of skin-fold measurement and PA was assessed by questionnaire (35). No differences were seen between groups for leisure time PA but non-obese boys were participating in significantly more sports (p<0.05). A UK-based study used accelerometry and also reported that children who were obese were less active compared to lean peers(36).

Identifying the components of PA (light, moderate and vigorous exercise) and their individual effects is important for the establishment of a dose-response relationship (37). Children involved in relatively high levels of activity often have less adiposity than more sedentary youth (38-42). Further, research in this area has observed significant gender effects. Accelerometers have been used to define physical activity in terms of intensity and studies have observed that children who are obese spend less time than healthy-weight peers in vigorous and hard activity(43). Similarly studies report that boys spend greater time in vigorous activity compared to girls(44).

Work by Tudor-Locke et al. (2004) determined cut-off points for the number of steps per day related to healthy body composition in children six to 12 years of age measured by pedometry. Resulting data observed that girls who took <12,000 steps/day and boys who took <15, 000 steps/day were more likely to be overweight or obese. When the number of steps/day were translated into time spent in physical activity data revealed that those children partaking in <120 min/day (girls) and <150 min/day (boys) were more likely to be overweight.

It can be understood from the literature that PA during childhood is important to ensure healthy development and to assist with weight management. Increasing PA is a key element in the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity and it is imperative that the barriers that limit time spent in PA are addressed, if children are to be adequately motivated to move. Exercise programmes should be developed according to an individual’s ability, as interventions that are not tailored to the fitness levels of obese participants may contribute to discouragement of future involvement in PA and lower self-efficacy.

Play and physical activity in childhood weight management

Independent of any effect on weight, the positive health effects of PA justify its inclusion in weight management programmes. Initial assessment will provide the clinician with information related to factors, which may influence the child’s current or past level of PA. PA level is influenced by familial and social factors (45) time spent in sedentary pursuits, peer-group activity, individual motivation, age, gender and physical barriers to movement (46, 47). As such, it is advisable for the clinician to understand a child’s barriers to partaking in PA so that appropriate suitable PA can be recommended. The child’s gender and age are of vital importance as work by Martinez Vizcaino et al. (48) reported that aerobic and strength training undertaken three times per week for 90 minutes reduced body fat percentage in girls, but not in boys. Similarly, Riddoch et al. (49) observed that an extra daily15 minutes of MVPA at age 12 provided a 14% reduction in fat mass in boys, but only a 7% reduction in girls at age 14. The type of PA which has been shown to reduce adiposity in children includes: endurance activities (50), aerobic activities (51), sport-based games (52-54), sports training (55, 56), active play (57), plyometric exercises (58), resistance training (59, 60) and active gaming (61).

When working with children who are clinically obese, it is important that assessment facilitates the following:

  1. a) Ascertaining what level of activity a child engages through standardised
    measurement
  2. b) Exploring any barriers to participating in active play and
  3. c) Developing an appropriate treatment plan for each child.

In order to assess a child and prescribe activity appropriately, the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Framework (ICF) can be a useful aid (62). Using this framework, ‘functioning’ encompasses the following: the body’s structures and physical functions (e.g. the respiratory and musculoskeletal systems); the activities the child undertakes (e.g. jumping and running); and the level of participation the child experiences (e.g. joining in with physical education class).

Measurement of Physical activity

The measurement of physical activity level can be considered as a proxy indicator of functional health and will often be conducted in tandem with measurement of physical fitness (e.g cardiorespiratory exercise testing). For further information on cardiorespiratory exercise testing in children who are obese please see the relevant chapter. Measuring physical activity accurately in childhood is challenging however as levels of play vary on a day-to-day basis and children engage in intermittent spontaneous bursts of movement (64) which can be difficult to recall.

As children grow older their levels of activity generally decline, particularly in girls (34, 65). By assessing the level of active play, active commuting and engagement in physical activity the clinician can develop an age-appropriate treatment plan for each child being treated for obesity. Physical activity can be measured using subjective tools such as activity questionnaires and objectively by motion sensors such as pedometers and accelerometers. Regardless of the method chosen, it is essential that the outcome measure is age-appropriate and has established psychometric properties. Table 2 describes a number of measures, which have published relating to reliability and validity in paediatric populations.

In addition the inclusion of activity-related questions in the clinic assessment form is vital. The following questions may be helpful to integrate with clinic forms:

  • Does parent/s consider child to be physically active?
  • Does child walk/cycle to school?
  • Is walking/cycling to school possible?
  • How many minutes of PE does child do in school?
  • Does child partake in PE?
  • How many minutes of play/activity does the child do each day? Do they sweat/turn red or get warm with this activity?
  • Is the child involved in any after-school activities?
  • Does the child have a safe place to play?
  • Does child report any barriers to becoming more active (pain, breathlessness, falls, embarrassment)?
  • Who could help the child to have more fun and be more active?

Barriers to Physical activity in children who are obese

In the clinical setting, referrals for obesity management are often made following a child’s presentation to the healthcare service for investigation of breathlessness and difficulty with exercise. Persistent inverse relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness (relative VO2max) and obesity level have been reported in children indicating that fitness relative to body mass declines as obesity increases (82-85). In addition, absolute cardiorespiratory fitness is impaired in adolescents with severe obesity(86). As such, weight–bearing activities such as walking and running may be restricted for children who are obese and they may not be able to cover the same distance as similarly–aged children of healthy weight. In turn, children may not be able to participate equally alongside children of healthy weight in games and sports and games may require modification (e.g allowing regular breaks).

Referrals to healthcare services for weight management are often prompted by a child’s report of pain and discomfort with exercise. A number of studies have investigated the presence of pain in children who are obese(87) and have reported that

children with obesity are nearly two to four times more likely to report musculoskeletal pain compared to children of a healthy weight(88-91). In particular pain is most often reported in the lower limbs(92). Biomechanical changes in bony alignment can also be associated with pain and the various orthopaedic conditions, which can limit physical activity, are described in other chapters.

The development of fundamental motor skills is essential if children are to enjoy physically active games and become masters of movement. Development of obesity at a young age can have a deleterious effect on the attainment of basic movement skills. In a Swiss study BMI was negatively associated to running ability in pre-schoolers(93). Similarly, a German study reported that boys who were obese had lower skill attainment compared to boys who were overweight or of a healthy weight. In two large studies, preschool children (94) and adolescents(95) who were obese had lower gross motor scores compared to overweight and healthy weight children. In general weight-bearing motor skills (jumping, hopping, skipping and climbing) are more difficult for children who are obese compared to object-control skills (catching, throwing, kicking)(96)

Pain, bony alignment and impaired muscle strength and balance can all impact on the functional activity of gait. Dynamic stability is affected through impairments in ability to correct anteroposterior and medio-lateral balance(97, 98). Subsequently, children who are obese walk at a slower pace and spend more time in the stance phase of gait(99, 100). This slowing effect can limit the distance covered by children who are obese when compared to lean peers(101). In addition, impaired dynamic balance and strength can restrict the daily activity of moving from sit to stand(102).

Considering the structural and functional impairments described above it is understandable that children who are obese report lower health-related quality of life compared to lean peers(103, 104).

Physical activity interventions

Increasing active play, physical activity level and physical fitness are aims of most obesity intervention programmes.. Physical activity can benefit children who are obese by increasing their lean body mass, increasing energy expenditure, improving their appetite and energy intake control, and improving their metabolic and psychological profiles(105). Independent of any effect on weight, the above changes justify the promotion of physical activity in children. In order to support a child in increasing these indices, interventions should consider the physical impairment that most often present in this group. A goal setting approach is useful to encourage gradual increases in the child’s activity level. Activities that are perceived as fun by the child should be targeted and efforts should be made to ensure that the child has someone to be play actively with. Recommending games with parents, siblings and friends will help a very inactive child to become more confident in active play.

Treatment aims should be to preserve fat-free mass and to improve fitness parameters. As such, facilitating basic motor skill and balance will be important to improve confidence in movement, reduce the risk of falls and to improve self-efficacy. Studies integrating motor skill components (e.g. hopping, skipping, jumping, single-leg stance and ball skills) can improve motor skill capacity (106, 107). Where standardized group treatment is offered, activity sessions should aim to establish movement and exercise as an enjoyable and rewarding experience. Games sessions should be fun, be tailored to the ability and preferences of the participants and should preserve lean mass, increase aerobic activity and improve motor skill in a safe and secure environment (without the child feeling ‘slow’ or ‘self aware’). Fun group games should favour aerobic activities which promote fat oxidation but with the minimal perceived exertion. Research suggests that adolescents who are obese exhibited maximal fat oxidation rates at 41% VO2max, which corresponded to 58% HRmax (108) and that short bouts (30-60 s) at 100% VO2peak or 100% heart rate favours improvements also on aerobic power (109).

The physical activity guidelines for children (table 1) should be followed with regard to the type and amount of activity needed per week. Clinicians should keep in mind that children who are obese will likely need to perform shorter age-appropriate bouts of activity dependant on their baseline level of fitness. As weight begins to reduce it will be necessary for the child to maintain or even increase their level of activity due to concomitant reductions in bodily energy expenditure (for further information see chapter on energy expenditure). It is likely that children would need more than 60 mins of moderate-vigorous activity per day to prevent weight regain (110, 111).

When prescribing activity for children who are obese the following principles should be followed:

  • Use FITT guidelines and advise on the Frequency, Intensity, Type and Time of activity that is needed
  • Tailor the prescribed activity to the ability, age, gender and preferences of the child
  • Take socioeconomic factors into account (e.g. safety of the childs environment, financial contraints)
  • Use SMART goal setting to plan specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timed activity goals
  • Use ‘gain-framed’ messages to highlight the effect of increasing activity and fitness (e.g. being able to keep up with peers in school, being picked for teams)
  • Use a problem-solving approach to overcome the child’s barriers to engaging in activity
  • Provide appropriate educational information to the parent/child on the importance of activity for childhood health and development
  • Encourage parents and families to meet with other families for group activities outside of the treatment programme

For children with severe obesity, non-weight bearing activities may be an appropriate initial undertaking. Due to the reduced physical performance on tasks involving horizontal acceleration or vertical lifting of the whole body weight, weight bearing activities may be very difficult, may cause pain and may negatively affect reduce the child’s motivation to continue. Recumbent cycling, stationary cycling, rowing ergometry and swimming are all suitable activities, though consideration should be given to the weight limits of any exercise equipment. In addition, children with severe obesity may not wish to use public swimming area secondary to embarrassment. As such, hospital hydrotherapy facilities or rental of swimming pools for bariatric patients may be indicated.

As a child progresses through treatment, attention should be given to activities that promote core stability and cardiorespiratory endurance. Similarly bone building activities such as jumping and skipping can be introduced and continued at least three times per week. Gradual increases in the time spent doing activity should be promoted and age-appropriate daily activity goal charts using stickers or rewards may be useful to support motivation. Similarly, pedometers, accelerometers or smartphone applications may be useful aids for encouraging self-monitoring of active play and physical activity. As the child becomes more accustomed to moving, it is useful to advise that the child try a variety of games, sports and activities. They should be encouraged to keep trying new games as it is usual to find new activities difficult when first undertaken. In addition, the whole family should be encourage to move more, to commute actively where possible and to spend family-time doing fun activities.

For children who are wheelchair users or have limited mobility following surgical procedure activity and games may need to be modified.

Overall the physical activity interventions should be designed to:

  • Preserve lean body mass
  • Be tailored on the basis of preferences of the child
  • Be aerobic
  • Be realistic in intensity and duration
  • Be fun
  • Develop a level of activity that can be maintained after the supervised component of treatment has ended

The individual components of sessions should include:

  • Warm-up games
  • Games directed at improving fundamental motor skill including locomoter skills (e.g. single-leg stand, hopping, jumping, sliding) and object-control skills (e.g. throwing and catching overhand and underhand, striking, dribbling and kicking)
  • Games directed at building muscular strength and flexibility
  • Games directed at improving core stability, static and dynamic balance
  • Games directed at improving cardiorespiratory endurance
  • Games directed at improving posture and gait
  • Games and exercises aimed at preparing the child for participation in team sports, and organized games

In addition to the promotion of active play and physical activity, sedentary pursuits should also discouraged. Television viewing and screen time have been directly related to the degree of obesity in childhood(112). Similarly, treatment should address the nutritional health of the child (see relevant chapters) and should promote sleep. Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with childhood obesity and cardiovasulcar health(113) and when a child increases their level of activity imporvements in sleep will often be observed.

Psychological Assessment Of The Obese Child And Adolescents: Principles

Introduction

Research demonstrated that the eating behaviour of obese individuals consists of a wide variety of patterns like eating caloric rich food to compensate for negative feelings, vomiting after overeating, eating at night, restrained eating, meal skipping (1).

It may be difficult to grasp and treat these eating behaviours specifically when they are related to psychological factors. Early assessment and treating of these problems in children is important as they can easily reach more serious levels for which more intensive and expensive interventions are required (2) and they can hinder weight loss.

Therefore, the following chapter aims to summarize psychological antecedents observed in paediatric obesity. The literature indentified several psychological models that can guide a thorough psychological assessment. There is no ‘leading’ theory and clinicians will test different hypotheses when an obese child applies for help. Restraint attitudes, emotional factors, learning mechanisms, personality and family variables will always be explored to help tailoring the treatment program to the individual needs of the child. Therefore it is recommended to construct a psychological profile of every obese child seeking treatment.

The models, the psychological factors and the specific measures to be used in an assessment will be presented. Finally, issues related to screening in a paediatric setting are discussed.

Psychological models

Restrained or Controlled eating

Obese children can demonstrate psychological attitudes like ‘dietary restraint’ or the cognitive preoccupation with weight, shape and food restriction. This is not the same as ‘dieting’ or the actual use of weight control practices to reduce energy intake (3). Both are prevalent in obese adults and children (4,5).

These cognitive preoccupations are often harmful. During dieting internal control of hunger and satiety is disregarded in favour of cognitive control (by the child or by the parents) over the child’s eating behaviour. However the cognitive control is often too rigid and easily disrupted and is in sharp contrast with a healthy lifestyle.

The Dietary Restraint Theory (DRT) is a psychological model that explains eating problems after following a strict diet. It was demonstrated that the cognitive control over eating often fails under distress or fatigue and that this increases the risk to overeat. This way, dietary restraint is often alternated with binge eating which lead to weight increase. This pattern is also prevalent in obese children (6). Furthermore failures of restraint behaviour may cause distress, which in turn fosters emotional eating. Therefore, since the occurrence of abnor­mal­ities in eating style are likely to increase, strict dieting and dietary attitudes are considered as psychological risk variables (7, 8).

To conclude, assessing an challenging dietary restraint attitudes and behaviour is important to guide our understanding and therapy. Advising obese children to restrain their eating without fully recognizing the history of dietary restraint attitudes may result in more rigid dieting-intentions which in turn may lead to the evidenced psychologi­cal side-effects and loss of control (9).

Emotional Eating

Negative emotions due to life events or daily minor stressors affect eating behaviour in some people (10-12) both during meals and via snacking. Specifically under mild stress, more comfort food consumption (energy-dense food due to high sugar and fat content) and a more unbalanced eating pattern is observed in 30-43% of adults and adolescents (13).

Since obese youngsters daily suffer from body dissatisfaction, weight concerns, social isolation and low self-esteem (14) there stress level is increased (15). Moreover, negative emotions are related with poorer obesity treatment outcome in some (16) but not all (14) studies.

The Affect Regulation Theory (ART) defines these observations as emotional eating (17). In this model mainly eating in the absence of hunger is considered as an effort to regulate negative emotions because food (a) provides comfort on a psychological level, (b) reduces arousal on a biological level, (c) distracts people from their emotional stage and (d) overshadows negative affect (18, 19).

To conclude, assessing emotional eating and exploring the potential underlying factors like stressors, low self-esteem, negative mood, body dissatisfaction or social isolation is relevant as it can guide our therapy. In this context, assessment of quality of life should also be included.

Reward driven eating style

Obese children can also show an increased responsiveness to food in the absence of dieting attitudes or emotions. For these children, the sight, smell, taste of food leads to an automatic approach reaction thereby ignoring feelings of satiety. They can be characterized as high reward sensitive (RS) (20).

According to Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) (21), RS reflects functional outcomes of the behavioral activation system (BAS). Activation of BAS causes behavioural activation and a tendency to approach goals. Imaging research in adults showed a higher positive association between RS (22) and activation in brain reward areas to appetizing foods relative to bland foods (23). Furthermore, compared to average weight peers obese youngsters show greater activation in brain reward areas in response to food stimuli (24) and in response to food consumption (25) suggesting that obese individuals versus average weight counterparts find palatable foods more rewarding (26,27). Therefore, we assume that RST can explain a third mechanism underlying disturbed eating.

However, also cognitive processes have to be taken into account. The dual process model (28) posits that self-regulation or the decision to go for the immediate reward and eat palatable food or to strain for the larger future benefit of weight loss and improved health is the product of the balance between bottom up reward processes and active top down inhibitory control. Research point at parallels between obesity and ADHD in children (29-32), and between obesity and other potentially addictive behaviours, all characterised by high RS and deficient inhibitory control (33,34).

In sum, obese children may show an increased responsiveness to food, sometimes regarded as craving or addiction to overeating even in the absence of dietary restraint or emotional eating. Such ‘reward driven’ eating patterns may be considered as a probably third pathway, contributing to disordered eating behaviour. Consequently, assessing RS is relevant as it can further guide our understanding of disturbed eating and therapy.

Impact of family pathology or a comorbid psychopathology

For most children, the home-environment is the central socialization context influencing the risk of obesity in offspring. Although the dynamics between parent and child are difficult to unravel, there are three alternative mechanisms to consider.

First, parents adopt different feeding styles and strategies toward their offspring and it is reasonable to suggest that the way parents feed their children may be related to a child’s eating behavior and weight status (35). Parents of an obese child may experience more difficulties implementing adequate daily food-rules and as a consequence choose less adequate feeding strategies (36). Research suggests that parental report of restrictive feeding is paradoxically associated with increased child BMI however based on observations at mealtime a lack of parental control instead of self-reported overcontrolling over children’s nutrition emerged within overweight families (37). So, we wonder whether parents are aware of their parenting style.

It is noticeable that both positive involvement as too stringent parental involvement can be considered as dysfunctional. Since the 70’s, the lack of parental involvement was evidenced for both general parenting as feeding situations in obese families (38). The presence of ineffective rules and discipline, the use of food to reinforce a child’s behaviour, subtle signs of emotional abuse all can have adverse side-effects. Population based studies are needed before these findings can be generalized.

Second, it was shown that psychiatric pathology in mothers, but not in fathers, was associated with the severity of obesity in their children (39).

Third, much of this research on family influences is correlational and direction of effects cannot be determined. It is likely that the parent-child relationship is bidirectional, with children’s temperament also challenging parent’ feeding practices. For example, some children have a more irritable or reactive temperament or show more internalizing symptoms (e.g. anxious feelings, depressed mood, psychosomatic complaints) or externalizing symptoms (e.g. impulsive behaviour, aggression, oppositional behaviour) (40). This can be measured easily with self-report scales or parental report although it must be interpreted with caution. In obesity research, psychological problems and mental disorders have always been discussed as causes of the problem (41,42).

We propose the Diathesis-Stress Model (DSM) for understanding the interaction between child characteristics and environment for explaining mental problems in children with obesity. Being overweight as child in a society which promotes the thin ideal might lead to negative feedback, low-self-esteem and this can form a scar (a diathesis) making these children more vulnerable when confronted with new stressors (43). According to our perspective on psychopathology, the ‘spirit of the times hypothesis’ (44) (characterized by a thin ideal and strong expectations regarding school and social performances for all children) predicts a general increase of psychological problems in overweight individuals.

To conclude, in childhood obesity it is very relevant to screen for family problems, but cautiously since (1) parents do not seem properly aware of their parenting style and (2) some children can be more difficult to educate. Consequently, also child characteristics on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms should be assessed.

Psychological assessment of youngsters with obesity

The identified psychological variables can guide a more thorough paediatric

assessment. In the influential ECOG position paper “The psychological approach of the eating behaviour of children who are obese” (45) a multi stage procedure for assessment is recommended which is adopted here.

First, the different possible psychological models (M) can be tested via a short interview.

M1. Is the child preoccupied with restricting food, dietary restraint attitudes or severe weight and shape concerns?

M2. Does the child report emotional eating?

M3. Does the child show a high reward sensitivity (in general or specific to food cues), a low inhibition capacity or report to be addicted to food?

M4. Are there problems in the family related to the parenting of the child? Or, does the child show internalizing or externalizing problems?

If one or more answers were positive, we must assume psychological problems and further assessment is indicated. For the assessment of psychopathology, it is recommended to use a ‘multiple stage’ strategy (46). This approach involves the use of a screening test to select potential cases for further assessment. Since observation or interview are neither very reliable nor cost-effective methods (47), questionnaires are recommended for screening mental problems in children and adolescents via parental report (all ages) or child report (from 8 years). It is recommended to use age-appropriate screening measures to verify the answers elicited by the interview questions. To interpret the score on a screening instrument and evaluate children’s functioning, clinicians have to compare the child’s raw score with normative samples using percentiles or T-scores. Also cut-points can be used to identify an at-risk child.

For those participants exceeding the cut-point score a next assessment period involves a second administration of the questionnaire along with a structured interview.

Overall, the use of reliable, valid screening methods and if possible multi-informant testing assessing both the child and the parent’s perception on the same domains is recommended. The table below lists a selection of instruments considered to be reliable, valid and available for testing the different models. A variety of psychological questionnaires (10 minutes each), tasks (20 minutes each) and interviews (45 minutes each) can be used (see Table1). Some are completed by the child, some are filled in by the parents and for some, both a child- and parent version is available. We must acknowledge that some of these measures can only be used by psychologists (the interviews) but specifically the questionnaires can easily be assessed (digitally) and scored and can also be re-administered in follow-up.

Optimal screening procedure

Screening for different psychological models included in one questionnaire

To keep the screening procedure cost-effective and to minimize the burden of a long assessment procedure on a paediatric consult short questionnaires can be used. Further, one questionnaire for the child and one for the parent can often be administered to screen for the different psychological models. For this task, for example the DEBQ (child version) combined with CBCL (parent version) is most efficient as it can help to test 4-5 models at once. The children at-risk can be identified using cut-points, based on norms from a non-clinical sample. It will always be interpreted with caution as screening instruments reveal substantial false positives and false negatives. So, if means are available double check the child’s perspective via interview or observation.

Considerations for referral and the importance of good communication

In some cases it may be relevant to consider referral to a suitable qualified paediatric psychologist for more in-depth assessment and treatment. For example, when in the initial assessment disordered eating is recognized or there seem to be problems within the child or home environment that may impede progress in the therapy, and when the assessing clinician does not feel adequately skilled. A first consultation may also identify cases where the parents should be referred to adult specialists for additional assessment and support for themselves (e.g. to address coping skills, parenting skills, substance dependence, depression etc).

As parents may often not be aware of the importance of underlying psychological health for their child’s overall health, they may be reluctant to answer questions about these issues. It is imperative for the clinician to overcome this initial resistance by addressing the child and family in an appropriate child-friendly manner and to ask permission to focus on these domains as well. His ability to communicate openly and with compassion builds trust and is essential in order to gain accurate insight into child and family life. Fostering an environment of support and understanding is important in order to avoid stigmatization or discrimination of the child and family.

Red flags for referral

If initial screening identifies any issues where child protection might be of concern (emotional abuse, physical abuse, serious bullying), it is recommended that prompt referral to appropriate services is undertaken. Also, if the child gains or loose considerable weight in a period of six months referral to appropriate services may be indicated.

Discussion

We must recognize that some children who are obese can be “psychologically healthy” with no addiction or eating disorders, and have a good quality of life, with preference for healthy nutrition and high intrinsic motivation for physical activity. The new paradigm of “Health @ any size” (48) has to be evaluated as an option for some, but not all children.

However, we must be aware that the psychological models propose hypotheses that can be relevant or not for a specific child. As indicated above, not all scientific issues regarding the underlying mechanisms have been investigated yet and some models have more evidence than others. In future research, we need to study whether we must separate/differentiate behavioural subtypes according to the different underlying psychological models.

Finally, psychological models need to recognize that we live in a toxic environment, which can influence the child on a macro-level, besides the psychological influences. Therefore an assessment process should also consider the role of friends, the school, the neighbourhood and the media.

Discover the Make-Up Artist in You

As a licensed cosmetologist, I would like to share how to develop the art of truly being a makeup artist on your own face.

First, please toss out old ideas you may have had, as well as the “one size fits all” beauty tips you’ve picked up along the way. You don’t want any pre-conceived ideas that may cloud your judgment.

Get in front of a mirror, with natural light. Cleanse your face, moisturize, etc. to get it ready for makeup. Get all your brushes, makeup gathered and pull your hair back out of the way. Imagine yourself as your own artist, with your face as the canvas upon which you are about to create a
look.

There are 2 very important principals to remember. Light colors bring out, gives the illusion of an area being forward or front. Dark colors set back, creates a look of depth. Now, really study for your face for a few minutes, don’t focus for now on any particular area, look at shape overall. It might help to even write down notes about impressions you get. What areas seem to need brought out? What areas seem to need to be set back?

An example would be a very round face would need an area in the cheeks set back (darker) to give the illusion of higher cheekbones, more slender face, at the same time using some lighter shades on the forehead area above the temples to also create a look of lengthening the face. A chin that is a bit undercut would need to be brought forth more to give the appearance of being more prominent than it is (lighter color).

When using lighter & darker colors for shading & highlighting, be sure to blend very well and use a light touch. Choose a foundation that is very close to your natural skin coloring. I personally have recently discovered mineral makeup (you can do an online search for several brands) or you can use any brand you want. I just have found these very easy to use for using light & dark colors where needed. Blend, blend and blend more, you don’t want anything that looks obvious or any streaking appearance. Also if you’re a light blonde, you wouldn’t use something super dark for shading because you wouldn’t be able to blend it in a way to look natural. Use a shade that’s 1 or 2 shades darker than your natural skin tone, same with lighter shades, 1 or 2 shades lighter than your own skin tone.

Look at your eyes closely now. You want to create balance. Not every eye will look best with the typical medium color on the lid, darkest in the crease and highlighter on the brow. Again, look at your eye shape, what needs brought forth (light), and what needs to recede (dark). A person
with deep-set eyes for example will do best with a light to medium shade on their lid, the lightest side in their crease, and a medium shade on their brow bone. The person with the deep-set eyes needs to avoid dark colors altogether, it will only accentuate the problem. Having the lightest color in the crease will help bring forth their eyes, making their eyes look bigger, wider and not set back.
This is the opposite pattern of what is typically told.

If a person has eyes that are close set together, you want light colors around the inside areas of the eyes (near the nose) to give the appearance of more space being there, making the eyes look wider apart, and darker colors on the outside edges.

Play with the different looks until you get the right one for your bone structure. It also helps to stand back away from a mirror, from across a room to look, as you get a better feel of overall balance than right up close. Don’t be afraid to try new combos you hadn’t thought of before, it might be the perfect fit for you!

Headache and Hypertension- Any Relevance ?

There has been an age-old debate as to whether headache is closely related to hypertension. It is a medical truth that headache is one of the symptoms of high blood pressure. But hypertension, to be noted, has no clear symptoms and more often than not occur without signs. It is a silent killer. The question however is not how headache is connected to hypertension but the real question is: “what significant difference in headache is present between a hypertensive patient and not?”

Headache can be caused by many factors. In a common instance, it is a result of anxiety, work stress, emotional stress, excessive or inappropriate medication, temperature changes, fever, or physical accident. In a hypertension case, headache is decisive and sometimes illusive. Doctors suggest that headaches occur as an instantaneous result of high blood pressure. To a hypertension patient it is an after affect, however, to a person who has not known he has one or has none at all, how will he know if this headache has significance to his health.

A book in 1968 titled “High Blood Pressure”, nevertheless, did not sustain the notion that headache is an effect of continuous high blood pressure. Headache that is experienced by a hypertensive person is a result of psychoneurosis according to the author. An unusual condition or strictly, a mental illness that causes anxiety, distress and impairs proper function of organs. He strengthens this proposition by elaborating that a patient who suffers hypertension is usually mentally disturbed and thus the adverse result of psychoneurosis is headache.

The author of the book also pointed out that since headache is reason outpatients resort to doctors to check up if they have high blood pressure, adults have conditioned their mind to such idea. This is especially true in the United States and Great Britain. The author’s psychoneurotic theory, on the other hand, is yet to be proven.

To get a better view of variation of headache experienced by hypertensive people, skeptics are starting to look at surveys and what they have to say. In 1953, a study was conducted by doctors in the United States that observed and interviewed persons who were aware and unaware they had hypertension. Of the 12 persons diagnosed with hypertension, 10 reported occurrences of headache. While only 1 reported headache out of 6 persons who were yet diagnosed but were later found to have hypertension. This led to the conclusion of some doctors, that headache of hypertensive people, is caused by anxiety.

Karmic Yoga and the Breath

During ancient times, even before Abraham, there were a set of priests who worshipped the God Yahweh. It was said that Abraham was baptized and initiated in the order by one of the priests who already resided in the land of Canaan. When we begin to look deeply at the idea of God that this priesthood put forward, it is easy to see that this priesthood was a group of people steeped in the mystic tradition.

The name Yahweh is very interesting and powerful. Many Jewish people would not mention the name, because it was too sacred. It was said to be unmentionable. One reason, however, that others think it is unmentionable is because one is incapable of hollering the name or even saying it loudly. If you will do a little experiment with me you will see why. Here is the experiment.

Curve your tongue just a bit and move it close to the pallet of your mouth so that you can hear a soft hiss each time you exhale. With each exhalation listen to the sound of the breath as it leaves the body. You will find that it is constant and strong going out and then, just before you are ready to inhale again and the diaphragm is resetting itself, it changes. The breath sounds like the name of the God. Is it any wonder that the name of the God couldn’t be spoken? Is it any wonder that the name is translated in two ways?

One translation is the verb of being–that which is, which was, and which will be. Another is that which creates. It is also interesting that the word spirit in almost every religion, can be translated as wind, or breath. When we look at this and think about the idea in Genesis where it says that God breathed his breath into the man made of the earth and he became a living soul, it can take us to an even deeper realization: The breath that exists in every person, or the spirit that exists in every person, is that little creative part of God in all of us.

As we inhale and exhale we are saying the name of God over and over again in our daily lives. When we cease to call the name of God life in the body ceases. Thus comes the importance of breathing and seeking the divine.

One of the first thing a meditation teacher will tell you, usually, is to concentrate on the breath when you are first beginning. The amount of breath taken in or pushed out is what makes the meditation work. The amount of the spirit taken in makes the meditation work, in other words.

As we breath we breath in oxygen. We breath in sub atomic particles and molecules that repair, or recreate, the damaged parts of the body. As we exhale carbon dioxide and the parts of the body that have been discarded along with toxins and poisons are carried out of the body. We are being recreated using the parts of other people, plants, animals and the other. This is done by the creative power of what many of us call God, or spirit.

Next time you meditate, or breath deeply, or chant, be sure to pay attention, realizing just how important every breath is, because it is the name and essence, in action, of God. And when you meditate you may just be able to try to find the secret name of God. Perhaps the secret name of God can be found in the silence of inhalation.

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Lorem Ipsum

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec vel libero at lectus rutrum vestibulum vitae ut turpis. Ut ultricies pulvinar posuere. Nulla rutrum, libero nec pharetra accumsan, enim leo blandit dui, ac bibendum augue dui sed justo. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Duis sit amet fringilla mauris. Ut pharetra, leo id venenatis cursus, libero sapien venenatis nisi, vel commodo lacus urna non nulla. Duis rutrum vestibulum ligula sed hendrerit. Ut tristique cursus odio, et vulputate orci fringilla nec. Proin tempus ipsum ut augue consectetur, in varius dolor bibendum. Proin at dapibus nisl.

Aliquam purus lectus, sodales et est vitae, ullamcorper scelerisque urna. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nulla feugiat, nunc nec gravida varius, nisl tellus dictum purus, a tristique purus lectus eget orci. Vivamus faucibus diam erat, vitae venenatis neque convallis vitae. Etiam eget iaculis arcu. Duis id nisl sapien. Aliquam erat volutpat. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Quisque luctus lorem a odio congue auctor. Suspendisse potenti. Nunc convallis, ante sit amet lobortis eleifend, orci dolor lacinia diam, quis luctus ante magna non sem. Phasellus pretium aliquam enim, a suscipit elit sodales vel. Proin tincidunt quis ipsum in condimentum. Vivamus molestie sodales erat et feugiat. Maecenas venenatis, leo in adipiscing commodo, eros tellus dapibus dui, in dignissim risus ligula id elit.

Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Nulla facilisi. Donec semper nisi non enim pulvinar venenatis. Vestibulum semper metus.